The ‘refugee crisis’ (in German: Flüchtlingskrise) has not only occupied a large part of the German political debate since September 2015. It has also contributed to changing the political landscape and to accelerating the outburst of severe social and political confl icts, thus forcing to reconsider and to improve integration policies. In this context, the old and never really well solved problem of the educational integration of children and youth with a migration history has come to the fore. As compared to the fi rst and the following waves of immigration after the Second World War, many new variables are adding complexity to the demographic structure, as well to the tasks which politics and institutions need to face in order to achieve social and school integration. In this contribution a few quantitative data are displayed to characterize the present migrant population in Germany. Some of the main factors determining the school achievement of students with a migration background are then described. In order to help focus the choices made in educational policies, the debate on ‘inclusion’ and ‘integration’, as it is conducted in Germany, is briefl y summarized. In the fi nal part, the issue of educational integration of asylum seekers and refugees is discussed, addressing some new (not only fi nancial) challenges, but also the abundance of positive initiatives and practice.