Enviromental education and its political implications are very ancient: Nature, that can reward men with her fruits, but can also punish them with catastrophic and mysterious events, has always inspired in men respect and awe; this encourages men to strike a balance between living beings and the environment. In this paper, I consider educational perspectives on the environment and Nature in the works of Lucretius and Vergilius; they are Latin didactic poets, who lived in the 1st century B.C. In their opinion, the interventions of men upon Nature, necessary for the survival of human beings, should start from an ecosystem-based approach that takes into account the delicate balance on which Nature rests.