This work analyzes the issue of fundamental human rights: are they guaranteed to all human beings? Probably not. This answer comes from examining the condition of migrants in Europe and, in particular, Italy. Our country often discriminates; it is xenophobic and racist. This very worrying situation emerges clearly from the treatment reserved for migrants in Italy, who are often considered criminals and terrorists. Immigrants are subjected to many forms of dehumanization: in such cases, it is up to our criminal judges to guarantee the victims’ rights and protect such vulnerable people. The article also recalls the sentence with which the Milan Assize Court condemned Osman Matammud to life imprisonment for crimes (kidnapping, homicide, sexual violence, torture) committed in Libya as head of the management of the migrant camp of Bani Walid; the ruling offers a starting point to reflect on Italian, Libyan and European responsibilities for what happens in migrant camps, compared by many to Nazi concentration camps.