The relationship between state and Church is one of the main topics of Western political debate. In this essay I will stress that there is not a clear formula with which to engage with this topic. Therefore, it is necessary that Catholic philosophy and theology always reflect on the way this relationship has to be considered as time goes by. More specifically, I will argue that the premise of liberal Catholicism – the idea that a clear distinction between state and society exists – is not easily acceptable at all today. This point is very important in order to enable one to reflect upon the relationship between state and Church, politics and religion, and the public and private sphere in our age.