Arturo Larcati‘s essay delves into Stefan Zweig‘s hostility toward the regime of Mussolini, a subject which has not yet been systematically studied in the field of scientific research. The pecularity of Zweig‘s opposition to fascism lies in the fact, that he had decided to fight the battle in the background, without directly exposing himself politically. Additionaly, he tried, following the appeal of Benedetto Croce, to primarily put up resistance through literary means. He critically referred to the fascist ideology as a form of populism and was in search of an antidote against fascist propaganda, which was based on manipulating the masses. Thus, he spoke up in favour of pacifism, humanism and a united Europe in his works. The solidarity he showed with the victims of fascism and his clear support towards enemies of Mussolini like Benedetto Croce and Arturo Toscanini complete his contributions as an anti-fascist, which, despite certain ambivalences, have been aknowledged and appreciated on many sides.