The aim of this article is to outline how the politics of difference take shape in the field of educational inclusion in Spain. Indeed, the ideological and social evolution of the concept of disability has had significant impacts on the development of more equitable and democratic policies in the Spanish educational system, which in turn has suffered significant changes in its structure, especially since the transition from the Franco dictatorship to the democratic Constitution. Finally, this article seeks to highlight that, in Spain, despite some remarkable achievements over decades of democratic policies, the process of inclusion is far from complete, thus shedding light on the most relevant structural aspects that pose obstacles to the achievement of full educational inclusion of students with disabilities.